Summary of Medical Laboratory Equipments

By on September 24, 2018
Medical Laboratory Equipments
  • Peritoneal dialysis is a type of dialysis which is performed under emergency condition. This type of dialysis is done by puncturing two needles through the abdominal (peritoneum) and washing out the peritoneal cavity with a saline solution.
  • During dialysis the conductivity of dialysate solution is continuously monitored to ensure that the water and the dialysate concentrate are mixed in proper proportions.
  • Hemodialysis is a method for removing waste products such as potassium and urea from the blood when kidneys are in failure. The chemical substances are removed from the blood by passing it through tubes surrounded by semi-permeable membrane.
  • The newest dialysis machines on the market are highly computerized and continuously monitor different parameters including blood flow rate, dialysate flow rate, dialysis solution conductivity, blood pH, temperature etc.
  • During dialysis, toxins such as urea, uric, uric acid gradually pass through plastic semi-permeable tube into dialysate solution. The semi-permeable membrane does not allow blood cells and large protein molecules.
  • During dialysis, the blood is taken out from the artery of the patient and mixed with an anticoagulant such as heparin and pumped into the apparatus called artificial kidney or hemodialysis machine.
  • Dialyzer is the major part of equipment that actually filters the blood. Dialyzer membranes have different pore sizes. Those with smaller pore size are called low flux membrane and those with larger pore size are called high flux membranes.
  • Dialysate pail is the storage place of the dialysate. It is through the dialysate that the blood from the patient is directed to flow through channels or tubes bounded by cellophane membrane.
  • The dialysate should be kept at a proper temperature. The temperature is controlled by the dialysate heater.
  • The function of dialysate check valve is to control the flow of dialysate to the dialysate pail.
  • The dialysate recirculating loop acts in such a way that the drained dialysate is reconverted into fresh dialysate and properly heated and redirected to the dialysate pail itself.
  • The dialysate holding tank holds the fresh dialysate and whenever the dialyaste of the pail has to be changed, the fresh dialysate from the holding tank is taken to the pail.
  • The flow of fresh dialysate from the dialysate holding tank to the dialysate pail is controlled by a flow meter in the machine set up.
  • Diathermy is a method of providing deep heat in the body by using high frequency short wave electric currents.
  • The diathermy principle can be used in surgical procedures where the diathermy knife is heated by the application of high frequency current which produces sufficient heat to cut tissues.
  • Short wave diathermy is used to treat body areas covered with a dense tissue of mass such as hip. In short wave diathermy, the body part to be treated placed between two capacitor plates.
  • Microwave diathermy is the easiest form of diathermy. This method use microwaves to heat the tissue. Here the heating of tissue is done by absorbing microwave energy.
  • Diathermy is used as a relief from various pains. It is also used as a method to prevent bleeding.
  • With diathermy procedures, the rate of blood flow increase which results in Fast recovery.
  • Patients with metal implants should he avoided from diathermy procedures.
  • Diathermy may affect the function of pacemakers and some patients may experience superficial burns.
  • Diathermy is particularly used during surgery such as neurosurgery and abnormal growths can be eliminated using diathermy.

Author Bio: The Author of this article, Sreejith is writing articles on Diathermy – Types and Application and Electronics and Communications

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